New Orleans – The Least American City in America
Esquire, July 2016
Hurricane Katrina changed everything about New Orleans. Except for the food, and the music, and the spirit that wouldn’t be submerged. Sanjiv Bhattacharya makes a pilgrimage to the least American city in America.
Cajun Seafood on Claiborne Avenue doesn’t appear on any tourist maps of New Orleans. It’s in the 7th Ward, just across from Treme, a part of town where tourists probably shouldn’t wander about after dark. But we have a guide, Mrs B and I, and this is his favorite crawfish spot. DJ Chicken (not his real name) has been showing us around all afternoon.
No one messes with Chicken out here. He’s only a little guy, about 5’ 2” and a gentle soul – more lamb than chicken. But he grew up in the hood in a well known musical family, which is royalty in New Orleans. His dad was in the funk band Chocolate Milk and Chicken himself has been DJing for 26 years. They called him DJ Chickenscratch at first – which beats his real name Kenneth Williams (“I know bruh. Ooh matron!”) But it was Chicken that stuck. Not to be confused with his pal, DJ Duck.
“Y’all must be here for the storm huh?” he grins, as we wade into our shrimp, ripping off heads and sucking on tails. Apparently a deluge is headed our way – it’s all over the news – an alarming forecast for a city that can fill up like a bowl of gumbo. But Chicken’s not one to flap. Even with Katrina bearing down, he wanted to ride it out. “We have hurricane parties out here. Get the grill, get the ice chest. Don’t matter if the lights go out – we got this! In New Orleans we party for everything.”
It was his seven year old who changed his mind. “My wife left with my other two kids, but my boy wanted to stay with me” he says. “And I couldn’t risk it, not with him. So we left the day before. And he saved me, honestly, because we had five feet of water. I would have been on my roof.”
Chicken was one of 175,000 people who fled New Orleans in the summer of 2005 because of Hurricane Katrina – forty percent of the city. Most were from the poor black neighborhoods that were hardest hit, and 100,000 of them never returned. They found new lives in Houston, Dallas, Memphis and Atlanta. It was just too difficult and expensive to come home. Besides, their new cities were clean and well organized, while New Orleans could be a tough place to live. In Dallas, where Chicken wound up, the buses ran on time and you were far less likely to get shot. So he made a go of it. There were 23 of them crammed into his aunt’s house, stacked like sardines, and Chicken had arrived with nothing more than the clothes on his back. But he started gigging and founded a DJ coalition. He almost stayed.
“I had opportunities,” he says. “But my wife, she’s Sixth Ward born and raised and she can’t live nowhere else. She’s like, ‘I don’t see people walking around, just out. Back home they sit out on their stoops. And they ain’t got no parades, no second line, no festivals.’ Which is true. In New Orleans, we got jazz fest, voodoo fest, always some kind a fest. And the food. The pickled turkey necks, pigs feet. That’s hood food. This crawfish boil, people fly it in, I’m serious. And the bars close at 2am in Dallas. That’s where she got me. I can’t live with that, bruh! In New Orleans we go all night. And you get a go-cup. We put your drink in a paper cup so you can walk the streets and keep your buzz on. Try that in Dallas. Actually don’t!”
They came home two years later. It took that long to fix up their house. And the city was already in the throes of a transformation.
In the past decade New Orleans has become a case study in disaster capitalism, a gentrification story on steroids. Developers swooped in, politicians took their cut, and the city was re-branded. In the new New Orleans, tourism would be ramped up, neighborhoods upgraded, and property prices inflated. And it’s happening. There are now six hundred more restaurants than before Katrina, and the population has almost been restored. Only this time, the people are whiter and better off, and from cities like New York, DC, San Francisco and Los Angeles, where for the most part they were priced out by similar forces of gentrification. Chicken sees them on their porches in the 9th Ward, a historically black neighborhood, in what was once a majority black city – and he can hardly believe it.
“It ain’t a racial thing, we party together down here,” he says. “But they messing with the mystique of New Orleans. They want to take Treme back, because they love the music and the jazz. But the music comes from the black people they pushing out!”
Chicken’s conflicted, though, like the city as a whole. As a DJ he welcomes a boom in tourism because it keeps the clubs full, and yet, as a fourth generation 9th Warder, he worries about the loss of culture and identity.
“I guess, we just don’t like change,” he says. “New Orleans is like a planet. We’re rooted in our culture, we don’t sway to what’s popular elsewhere. A lot of cities are a melting pot of this culture and that, but here we made our own. We invented our own music and our own cooking. What else do you need?” He takes a crawfish and sucks on the juice. “We like it like we like it.”
I heard variations on this theme all week. That New Orleans is just different; that it’s in America, but not of it; and that when locals leave town, like New Yorkers, they call it “visiting the States”. Yes, it’s a shambles and full of corruption and potholes, and you ought to watch your back as you stagger about the French Quarter, because getting mugged is all too easy in the Big Easy. But don’t think of it as the most disorganized city in America, think of it instead as the most organized city in the Caribbean; as though a chunk of the West Indies broke off and floated north, getting stuck in the gator swamps of Louisiana.
As American cities increasingly come to resemble each other, New Orleans is a wonderful exception. It’s uniquely unique, an unmistakeable city. It lives by different rules. From the gothic mansions of the Garden District, to the clapboard shotguns of humbler wards, in orange, yellow and aquamarine, nowhere else looks like New Orleans. Its beauty is inimitable. In Triksta: Life and Death and New Orleans Rap, legendary music journalist Nik Cohn writes of the city’s ‘battered grace,’ its ‘subtropical jungles of blossom’. It’s the only American city below sea level, and Cohn writes, “the air has a velvet weight.” And its culture is so fierce, so distinct. There’s the voodoo and parades, beads and brass bands – things that can’t be found anywhere else. And then, there’s the New Orleans culture that is found everywhere. It’s only twenty minutes, end to end and yet so bursting with life, it’s hard not to marvel. For without New Orleans, we wouldn’t have jazz, RnB or funk. Or twerking. And quite possibly the cocktail.
Everyone is seduced by the Big Easy in the end. Resistance is futile. Cohn fell for the ramshackle city of the 70s and 80s, so he decries the post-Katrina version as a “theme park, a Creole Disneyland, a commodified version of itself.” But I was new there, so nostalgia didn’t ruin it for me. And I fell as hard as anyone for its charms. To stroll down Royal St in Spring, go-cup in hand, while an old black man on a street corner plays the clarinet blues, is to be romanced. It’s New Orleans giving you the come-on.
Each morning, we’d leave the W hotel in the Quarter – a spiffy option in the middle of the action – and we’d let the winds buffet us around town. They were the harbinger of a storm that was already pounding Eastern Louisiana. So naturally, with disaster looming, the bars were full. And fellow drinkers were more than happy to weigh in. They’re big on talking in this town, and no strangers to a spot of weather. Don’t worry they said, the Quarter doesn’t flood. It didn’t last time, anyway. And, if it rains, well, we’ll probably get 2-for-1 cocktails.
Did New Orleans invent the cocktail? The guy with the red nose at the Sazerac bar seems to think so. Evidently one Antoine Peychaud a pharmacist in the late 1800s had a line of bitters, which he’d serve with brandy in upturned egg cups, or “coquetiers” in French, which then became “cocktail”. The cocktail’s name – the Sazerac, drink synonymous with the Crescent City. It takes a dash of absinthe, a lump of sugar, some bitters and cognac (though it’s typically made with rye whiskey these days).
The truth may be more mundane. A more boring story may in fact predate Peychaud. But I’m going with Rudolf’s version – it turns day drinking in New Orleans into a pilgrimage. And there are so many sites to visit. Cocktail pride is strong here. There’s the impossibly elegant Arnaud’s French 75; the Carousel Bar at Hotel Monteleone which goes around every 15 minutes (it sounds cheesy, but isn’t); and the epic Sazerac Bar, at the Roosevelt Hotel, which looks fit for a classic Scorsese gangster movie. There’s even a bullet hole in the back wall for good measure.
Getting sloshed in New Orleans can feel terribly civilized, always the sign of a great city. Faulkner got his drink on here, as did Hemingway and Matisse, and there were moments on those same barstools, within earshot of a swinging trumpet, when I thought I could see what they saw in the place, those old masters – that this city knows something important about life and death.
In his book Nine Lives, Dan Baum cites a poll conducted before Katrina when New Orleans was the worst city in America for poverty, schools, crime and corruption. “More New Orleanians,” he writes, “regardless of age, wealth or race, were ‘extremely satisfied’ with their lives than residents of any other American city.” And you can tell. They’re so happy here, they paint their houses pink and yellow. They invented the Lagniappe, a little complimentary something that merchants give customers out of love – a shot at the bar, or some lucky beads. They’re famously late. Baum again: “Calendars are for managing the future. And in New Orleans the future doesn’t exist… While the rest of Americans … chase the horizon, New Orleanians are masters at the lost art of living in the moment.”
And they love a parade here. Their 2nd Line tradition is so called because people got so excited, they formed a second line behind the parade to join in. There was exasperation in some quarters when, only six months after Katrina, New Orleans celebrated Mardi Gras – the city was devastated, surely there were other priorities. But that parade was New Orleans in a nutshell, its essential duality – a lust for life and an acceptance of death. They go hand in hand in voodoo town. They know better than to sweat the small stuff, here, and should they forget, there are huge cemeteries all over to remind them. They’re known as ‘cities of the dead’ because the graves are above ground, and according to legend they have to be in this sub-sea level city – the water table is liable to rise and move the coffins about, forcing them up through the earth.
It’s another irresistible story, but not quite true. We took a tour of the St Louis #1 cemetery off Basin St, where they shot the acid trip scene in Easy Rider, and where Nicholas Cage has bought himself a plot – the voodoo, it got to him. Our guide was this little nun in New Balance sneakers, and she wasted no time in busting that myth. The above-ground graves are a cultural thing, they have them in France. Nothing to do with the water table.
But why let a little fact like that ruin a good story? After all: don’t sweat the small stuff.
It’s a Monday night in Bywater, formerly known as the Upper 9th. Blustery out, but the rain’s holding off. And as one would expect for a residential neighborhood, it’s pretty quiet – not a soul on the streets.
But down at the far corner, at the end of Chartres, there’s a big house with all these lights on. A guy on the door, a line down the street, and inside, a revelation – a combination wine store and restaurant with a gorgeous garden out back draped in Christmas lights. An avant-garde cellist, Helen Gilet is performing. And the place is packed. On a Monday.
The story of Bacchanal is the story of the new New Orleans in many ways. It sits at the epicenter of gentrification, a stretch of Bywater known as “the sliver by the river”, which escaped flooding and so quickly became ground zero for developers. But Bacchanal was born before Katrina. The founder Chris Rudge – who passed away last year – bought the building in 1998.
“He paid $90,000, can you believe it? It needed work, but that shows you what this neighborhood was like back then,” says Joaquin Rodas, 42, one of the partners. “It was rough out here. Still is!”
Rudge opened a wine shop downstairs in 2002, and let customers drink in the back yard, because as his partner Beau Ross says, “people needed a place to hang out. We didn’t didn’t have the permits but our philosophy was, it’s always better to ask for forgiveness than permission!”
After Katrina, Bacchanal became more than just an illicit bar – it was a gathering place, a campfire for a traumatized community. “We were all doing house clearings,” says Ross. “We all knew the stench of dead bodies next door. But we were here, you know? We didn’t leave. We worked hard to build this back up.”
Katrina brought a flood of government engineers and work crews which helped bars and restaurants survive. “Some places were getting $78 a plate breakfast lunch and dinner,” says Rodas. Then, just as the markets were crashing, the city got another financial shot in the arm. “All these funds had been earmarked for New Orleans, but they couldn’t flow until they’d been approved,” says Ross. “And that was around 2008. So we kind of rode out the recession.” And then Hollywood started shooting there, lured by tax breaks. “Suddenly we had this injection of young people and money, in this entertainment city. And lot of them stayed. They saw it was cheaper than LA or New York.”
As Bacchanal bloomed, Ross started booking local bands to put on in the back yard, and by 2009, Rodas had put together a menu – they were essentially running an illicit bar, restaurant and jazz club out of the back of a wine shop. But without permits, the writing was on the wall. And sure enough, the city shut the place down in 2011. On a packed Friday night, too. And the outcry was immediate. Signatures were collected, petitions drawn up, and ultimately fifty two neighbors spoke up for the restaurant at city hall. “It took eight months,” says Rodas. “It’s like a third world country, New Orleans. A lot of corruption. But we made it.”
Today Bacchanal is held up, like the cocktail bar Cure on the other side of town, as a beacon of gentrification – a change agent for a once-deprived neighborhood. Other businesses have sprouted up in Bywater, down Dauphine Street, especially – the Satsuma Café and Oxalis. And Ross and Rodas welcome it all. They’re boosters for the new gentrified New Orleans.
“I know people are angry about it,” says Rodas. “But you have to remember, this is New Orleans – people love to complain here. It takes ten people to change a light bulb – one to change it and nine to say how they preferred the old light bulb. Even with those new Dutch-style houses Brad Pitt built in the lower 9th, people still wanted their old shitty houses back. Dude – it’s a free house!”
We drive to a flashpoint of New Orleans gentrification – the St Roch market on St Claude Avenue, a spotless white hall full of kale juice, gourmet lunch options and (mostly) white people in their 20s and 30s. “It used to be a seafood market which stank of rotting shrimp,” says Rodas. “But people still say, ‘oh it’s not how it used to be’. Well OK, I could mug you right now if you want – is that authentic enough for you?”
What Ross and Rodas see at St Roch, is a renaissance for their city. We order some beers and oysters and find a table toward the back.
“This right here,” says Beau, gesturing at the lunch crowd. “This means the time has come for New Orleans to return the American narrative, after our near-death experience. Katrina was a Woodstock moment for us. It opened us up to millennials who are now discovering everything that New Orleans stands for. And guess what? They love it.”
“Where are you eating?” Everywhere we went, we got the same question. It’s like a tic in this town, something more than just southern hospitality. Maybe it’s the French in them, but in New Orleans food is a matter of identity and pride, and everyone’s a foodie, more than happy to buttonhole tourists and insist they take down their recommendations.
The same names recurred time and again – Arnaud’s, Shaya, Borgne, Peche, Galatoires, Compere Lapin, Cochon, Domenica and Commander’s Palace. We couldn’t do them all, but we tried. Gout and about in New Orleans. It’s the only way to go. I came home heavy, delighted, waxing on about the lasagne at Domenica, and the cauliflower too; the black drum and caviar at Compere Lapin, and that paper wrapped pompano at Borgne…
But for my dollar, the Creole palaces are still the main draw. In the current restaurant boom, New Orleans risks the kind of foodie homogenization that has swept New York, Los Angeles and Chicago, where the best restaurants are often hard to tell apart once you’re in them. The high design, the attractive wait staff, a well heeled crowd and ambitious menus that need explaining. But at Antoine’s the oldest running restaurant in America, there’s no doubt you’re in New Orleans. Ditto for Arnaud’s, founded in 1918, with one of the most beautiful dining rooms in the city. It’s a world of white tablecloths and chandeliers, exquisite service and traditions that go back 100 years. This is New Orleans at heart – tradition. Families which go back six generations and can’t tell you about it quickly enough. For all their libertine ways and party spirit, New Orleanians are deeply conservative. It’s that duality again. They’ll party all night, but only in the time-honored fashion. After all, if it ain’t broke.
At Galatoires for instance, the menu hasn’t changed since 1905. They take no reservations and require men to wear jackets. It’s traditional to have your waiter order for you, and you’ll get the same waiter when you come back, as will your kids – it’s common for waiters to serve three generations of the same family. And there’s no music, no art on the walls, only mirrors, chandeliers and the clatter of conversation. “Everything you get from an energy standpoint comes from your fellow patrons,” says the manager Melvin Rodrigue (pronounced ‘road-reeg’). “It all reverberates on itself.”
We went on a Tuesday night, Mrs B and I. It meant navigating Bourbon Street, which is never easy on the nerves. Like Vegas, New Orleans tends to attract a certain type – the frat bros and coach-trip slappers who drink from luminous gourds. They shriek about the Quarter all day, and then at night they flow like tributaries to their Mississippi, which funnels them into a roiling channel of chunder and tchotchkes. The streets are too narrow to give it the wide berth it deserves.
And yet, in the middle of it all, is Galatoires, a pinnacle of old world elegance. There’s a different brand of raucous, here. The tables talk to each other. To our left, they just broke into song. And our waiter Skip assured us that Fridays were even better. It’s a New Orleans custom to work maybe an hour or two at the office and then go to Galatoires for lunch, never to return. The doors open at 1130 and people often stay through dinner. “We get people lining up outside from six in the morning,” he said.
And sure enough, I happened to be passing through the Quarter on Friday morning, about 11am, so I gave Galatoires a look see. It was raining heavily by then – not 100 miles east, cars were floating down the street, our time would surely come. But still, there they were, the lunch crowd, huddled under brollies, waiting for a table like it’s the new iPhone.
“I’ve only been here a couple of hours and I’m nearly at the front!” Mike told me, a legal assistant from Uptown St Charles. He was there to keep a table for his colleagues who would be along soon enough. “Our clients understand, it’s fine,” he said. “In fact, I’ll probably see them here. It’s the start of the weekend!”
“It’s all in the mix. That’s what this place is about.” Jon Cleary, one of the city’s most beloved musicians, is having lunch at Borgne, a buzzing seafood restaurant. Naturally we’ve ordered oysters. They’re just so good here, so clean. Chef Brian Landry, a New Orleans native, says it’s something to do with the brackish water – the mix of freshwater and brine, where the Mississippi meets the sea. And Cleary says it’s the same with culture, which teems in New Orleans much like the frutti di mare. Because jazz came from the mix too – the mix of cultures, races and religions.
“It was French then Spanish then French again,” says Cleary. “All Catholic. Then the Americans bought it, and they were Protestant. Then you had the slaves from Africa who used to gather in Congo square and make music. New Orleans was the only place they allowed slaves to congregate freely. So the African players met the classically trained Creole players from the European side, and that’s how jazz started.”
No one fell harder for the romance of New Orleans than Cleary. He came here aged 17 from Cranbrook in Kent, not even knowing where he was going to spend the night. He found a job at the Maple Leaf, a famous jazz club which was, at the time, a combination Laundromat, bar and gun shop. And he learned by listening to the best players in the city, not least James Booker, “a one-eyed gay black genius heroin addict.” It’s a fairy tale story. Cleary got his start when Booker didn’t show up one night and he was asked to stand in. Today, Cleary leads a funk band which won a Grammy this year, and he is considered something of a custodian of New Orleans musical traditions. A white guy from Kent.
Over pompano and amberjack – even the fish have musical names here – Cleary tells the story of a fabled libertine city, with legendary sin palaces full of gorgeous Creole girls, their pimps and dope dealers. And at the heart of it all were musicians like Jelly Roll Morton, Louis Armstrong and King Oliver. We think of jazz as middle class, a noodling noise in bijou restaurants, but here, it has always been the music of the streets.
Times, however, are changing. “When I started out clubs used to go all night,” Cleary says. “I’d go on at 3am. But I’m on at 9pm now, because the new people coming in, that’s what they expect. They don’t know our New Orleans ways. Did you hear about that white couple in Treme?”
I did. It’s an apocryphal story – the couple who moved to the birthplace of jazz, and then complained about the music in the streets because their baby couldn’t sleep.
“And they stopped it! It’s a metaphor. Katrina has brought us kicking and screaming into the mainstream model of a US city. But we don’t want that here!”
After lunch, Cleary takes us on a tour of the city’s jazz heritage, pointing out storied clubs like The Little Gem on Poydras St, and Joe’s Cozy Corner, in Treme. But it’s a sad drive. The clubs are either in disrepair, or closed down altogether. Some have been sold off and converted, others are literally collapsing like Club Desire in the 9th Ward, where Fats Domino, Count Basie and Ray Charles all played. And the homes of Buddy Bolden and Kid Ory, arguably the first ever jazz trumpeters, don’t even bear a plaque.
“It’s a racist town in a lot of ways,” Cleary says. “People thought black history wasn’t worth preserving. Jazz was the music of the poor. It was disreputable.”
The idea that black history is American history still hasn’t quite caught on in this country. Harriet Tubman, a former slave who freed hundreds, may soon be on the new $20 bills, but Treme remains a ghetto. So gentrification has an added dimension here. It speaks to a deeper American anguish. Jazz is the cultural legacy of slaves and yet the people of Treme were not uplifted by it – there are no hotels here, no restaurants or tours. Instead Treme is crumbling and risks cultural erasure, while across town a few minutes the mansion homes of former slaveowners are perfectly preserved.
In some ways, New Orleans, for all its uniqueness, is a microcosm of America – a place which celebrates its diversity, the cocktail of races and cultures rubbing along together, and yet still hasn’t fully reckoned with its slave history.
Treme’s plight was no accident. On Claiborne Avenue, for instance, where we had crawfish with DJ Chicken, there was once a beautiful colonnade of ancient oak trees where the people of Treme would gather and celebrate. But in the 60s, in the new dawn of the civil rights era, just as local businesses were beginning to prosper, city planners built the 10 freeway right through it. The trees were uprooted, an overpass erected, and on its soulless white pillars, local artists painted the trees that they miss. The painted oaks of Claiborne are as poignant a symbol as any that the struggle which gave birth to jazz remains relevant today.
The past lives and breathes in New Orleans, in all its joy and pain. And what more can one ask of a city than a sense of the lives that have passed through? Treme’s troubles only add to its aura. And there’s something utterly compelling about a place of history and tradition that doesn’t want to change, and yet must, so it fights with itself. Chicken and Cleary are right that Treme’s jazz culture was diluted when some of the area’s musical families left, to be replaced by the white middle classes. And yet equally, Bacchanal is booming, the French Quarter teems. Flush with new blood, and new money, New Orleans pulses and throbs as it always did – if ever there was a time to visit, it’s now.
Later that night, Mrs B and I head to Frenchman Street in the Marigny for some music. This is how it goes out here – a huge meal, followed by dancing, however heavy your feet after five full nights. And Frenchmen Street is compulsory. A whole string of bars – the Blue Nile, DBA, Snug Harbor and about ten others – all hopping with live music. It looks especially alluring tonight in the rain. It seems this storm’s almost upon us, and Canal Street may yet resemble an actual canal, but the bars are at capacity all the same. The music pours out of the doors into the streets.
Cleary’s on tonight at DBA – one man and a piano, swinging, with a lavish trilling style on the keys, closing the show with a New Orleans classic, Blueberry Hill, by one of the city’s favorite sons, Fats Domino. And at some point while he’s singing, while the crowd’s belting out “and you were my thrill…” something extraordinary happens – the rain stops. The wind mellows, and the air feels strangely warm.
One of the barmen is outside smoking, looking at the sky. “Looks like it missed us,” he says. “Kissed us and moved on. The gods are smiling on New Orleans today.”
[If you can catch Jon play ever, do. He’s fucking brilliant. Here he is with his band, The Absolute Monster Gentlemen, doing a killer version of a New Orleans classic, Just Kissed My Baby, by the Meters.]
Where to Eat:
Arnaud’s – 813 Rue Bienville, LA 70112, (504) 523-5433
Bacchanal – 600 Poland Ave, LA 70117, (504) 948-9111
Borgne – 601 Loyola Ave, LA 70113, (504) 613-3860
Compere Lapin – 535 Tchoupitoulas, LA 70130, (504) 599 2119
Galatoire’s – 209 Bourbon Street, LA 70130, (504) 525-2021
Domenica – 123 Baronne St (Roosevelt Hotel), LA 70112, (504) 648-6020
Shaya – 4213 Magazine St, LA 70115, (504) 891-4213
Where to Drink:
French 75 – 813 Rue Bienville, LA 70112, (504) 523-5433
Sazerac Bar – 130 Roosevelt Way (Roosevelt Hotel), LA 70112, (504) 648-1200
Cure – 4905 Freret St, LA 70115, (504) 302-2357
Carousel Bar – 214 Royal St (Hotel Monteleone), LA 70130, (504) 523-3341